Now the Lord tells Moses and Aaron that He appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and made a covenant with them and therefore He is going to bring Israel according to the covenant.
Once He brings Israel is out, and this is the key phrase to how the Lord interacts with Israel forever: “you (Israel) shall know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.” (verse 6:7).
In one sense all that is happening in the story is that the Lord is keeping His promise to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to bring their descendants as numerous as the stars to the promised land. The important part to remember is the Lord is the One who is fulfilling the promise. Israel or the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are the beneficiaries of the promise; they have no part in fulfilling the promise. It’s all a work of the Lord.
This relates to our salvation in that the Father and the Son made a covenant together as the Lord made one to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Except our promised land is what we call heaven, or the city made without hands, where the Father dwells.
Now as Moses and Aaron are told to return to Pharaoh the Lord tells them: “See, I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet.” This relationship will be further expounded when the Lord gives the Law to Moses and Aaron becomes the High Priest.
But then the Lord says, “But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart that I may multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.” (verse 7:3) Remember Pharaoh represents the devil which means that part of the goal here is for the Lord to demonstrate He is more powerful than the devil.
This question is deep in our soul: is God powerful enough to save me? So God is demonstrating He is and that He keeps His promises so we will follow Him.
Hence after all the judgements He brings on Egypt and Pharaoh even the Egyptians will know He is the Lord. (verse 7:5)
Hebrews 11:1-12 fits well with the Exodus account as it is first about faith and then illustrates Saints who believed the Lord was powerful, acted on His word and followed Him.